As the Frankish Empire expanded, the medieval eastward migration and settlement of German speaking people from the Holy Roman Empire extended as far as Transylvannia. At the beginning of the 20th century, these medieval settlements had become eastern provinces of the German Empire or the Austrian Empire
The flight from the East to more industrialized regions began during the 19th century and continued with the creation of ethnically homogeneous nation states in Central and Eastern Europe after 1919, but substantially in 1945.
Younger children of noble families were free to migrate to participate in the medieval eastward migration. Settlers were invited by local secular rulers and monasteries and granted estates and privileges. Towns were founded and granted German town law. Cistercian monks would erect an abbey, and call in settlers to clear and cultivate the land. Generally settlements were in bands from west to east and different German dialect groups expanded eastward. Franks settled the central regions through Thuringia to Silesia. When there was a Slavic settlement in the vicinity, the new German one was distinguished by Groß- (“large”) and the earlier settlement by Klein- (small): Großhettstedt and Kleinhettstedt, Großgölitz and Kleingölitz.
Between 1846 and 1871, Guenther Froebel and Traugott Bromme edited General emigration newspaper: A messenger between the old and the new world, which was printed at Hofbuchdruckerei Froebel, Rudolstadt.
This digitisation and online delivery is a collaborative project of the Thuringian University and State Library and the State Archives of Thuringia – National Archive Rudolstadt.
Die Digitalisierung und Online-Bereitstellung der “Allgemeinen Auswanderungs-Zeitung” und ihrer Beilage “Der Pilot” ist ein Gemeinschaftsprojekt der Thüringer Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek und des Landesarchivs Thüringen – Staatsarchiv Rudolstadt.
Der Rudolstädter Verleger Günther Fröbel druckte zwischen 1846 und 1871 die “Allgemeine Auswanderungs-Zeitung”, die in Zeiten starker Nachfrage zeitweise dreimal wöchentlich erschien. Dieses Organ veröffentlichte neben Ratschlägen für Auswanderungswillige und Erfahrungsberichten Ausgewanderter auch Schiffslisten, die für genealogische Recherchen von hoher Bedeutung sind. Zwischen 1855 und 1864 erschien als Beilage zur “Allgemeinen Auswanderungs-Zeitung” das unterhaltsame Wochenblatt ” Der Pilot” .
Claudia Taszus: Günther Fröbel (1811 – 1878). Hofbuchdruckereinbesitzer, Verleger und Auswanderungsagent in Rudolstadt.
Eine biographische Skizze anläßlich seines 125. Todestages. In: Blätter der Gesellschaft für Buchkultur und Geschichte, 7. Jg. 2003, S. 33-108.
Rudolf Ruhe: Die “Allgemeine Auswanderungs-Zeitung” – Ein Presseerzeugnis des 19. Jahrhunderts aus Rudolstadt.
In: Rudolstädter Heimathefte H. 3/4, 1976, S. 65-69.
Allgemeine Auswanderungs-Zeitung: ein Bote zwischen der alten und der neuen Welt . – Rudolstadt : Hofbuchdr. Fröbel, 1.1846 – 24.1870
Hauptsacht. teils: Allgem. Auswanderungs-Zeitung
Hrsg.: G. Fröbel; Tr. Bromme; verantw. Red.: G.M. von Ross u.a.
Teils auch mit durchgehender Seitenzähl .
Allgemeine Auswanderungs-Zeitung has also been uploaded in 2016 and as an ePublication. File format: ePub, PDF, Kindle, AudioBook File Name: Allgemeine Auswanderungs-zeitung: Ein Bote Zwischen Der Alten Und Der Neuen Welt. 13. Jahrgang.pdf Size: 25151 KB.
Carl Poppo Froebel, Printer to the Princely House of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, was a German classical philologist, high school teacher and publisher. Also known as Karl Poppo Froebel.
Zunächst als Professor am Rudolstädter Gymnasium und als Übersetzer tätig; kaufte im Jahre 1815 die Hofbuchdruckerei in Rudolstadt. Er ist der Vater von Günther Fröbel
His son was also Printer to the Princely House of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. In 1857, Hofdruckereibesitzer G. Froebel gathered together Freemasons in this region to restore this lodge, which had not met since 1829.
Günther Fröbel war ein Sohn von Carl Poppo Fröbel, der von 1811 bis 1878 lebte. Günther Fröbel druckte wahrscheinlich ab 1830 bis 1875
A younger half brother of Friedrich, Carl Poppo Froebel was born 2 November 1786 in Oberweißbach and died 15 March 1824 in Rudolstadt.
Since its inception in 1663, Rudolstädter Hofbuchdruckerei was among the most important economic and cultural undertakings in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
Rudolstaft was a favourable geographical location for printing, because of the proximity to the fairgrounds of Leipzig, Nuremberg and Berlin, the university cities Weimar and Jena, and trade routes for distribution across Europe.
Since its inception in 1663 until well into the 19th century, Rudolstädter Hofbuchdruckerei was among the most important economic and cultural undertakings in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. This print shop was founded in the wake of the mutual relationship with the letterpress and the Reformation. There was a huge increase in demand for Protestant literature, ephemera for school use, and personnel or occasional writings. The need for such a project was controversy in the Reformation lands. Luther in his “Table Talk” emphasizes: “The high benefits of Buchdruckerei”, through printing the Scriptures is opened and spread out in all tongues and languages, all arts and sciences are obtained, multiplied and propagated to our descendants.
In its heyday in the late 18th century to the first third of the 19th century, Hofbuchdruckerei became a company and received orders from 161 publishers, mainly from central and northern Germany, Denmark and the former Prussian provinces of East and West Prussia, Silesia and the Baltic province of Livonia under Russian rule.
Rudolstaft was a favourable geographical location for printing, because of the proximity to the fairgrounds of Leipzig, Nuremberg and Berlin, the university cities Weimar and Jena, and trade routes for distribution across Europe. In addition, local favourable economic factors included low prices and good supply of paper in the appended paper mills, and a long tradition of quality and reliability in an (almost) uncensored environment.
Based on sources evaluated for the first time, the story of this Princely printing house between 1663 and 1824 is presented with a description of activities associated with the representation of this Publisher in Riga, Dresden and Leipzig.
Ludwig Friedrich Hesse, Geschichte des Klosters Paulinzelle (Rudolstadt : Gedruckt in der Froebelschen Hofbuchdruckerei, 1815).
Beitrage Zur Landesgeschichte Des Furstenthums Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1864) (German) Hardcover
Schwarzburgisches Sion; oder, Schwarzburgs geistliche liederdichter in biographischen skizzen nebst einer auswahl ihrer lieder. Zum besten des zu Rudolstadt zu gründenden rettungshauses für verwahrloste kinder.
Publisher: Rudolstadt, Gedruckt in der Fürstl. priv. hofbuchdruckerei, 1857.
After nearly 60 years of interruption of Masonic activity in Rudolstadt the Lodge “Günther zur Eintracht”, meaning “Günther concord” was established on 6 September 1992 in the Green Room of the Heidecksburg. In 2012, the Masons of Rudolstadt celebrated the 20th anniversary of this event.
“Decisive for the future will be whether Freemasons use their resources to preserve proven traditions and at the same time be open to innovations. This includes openness to people and the courage for human encounter in the bond of friendship of the lodge. These also include preserving the richness of old forms, but also eliminating unnecessary and outdated decoration. And that includes participation in the important discourses of the present. Many of these discourses have relations with the Masonic tradition, they may relate to the development of education, on the ethics issue, the appropriation and implementation of values or reflections on the art of living. Freemasonry saw itself always as the art of living”. Prof. Hans Hermann Höhmann
A lodge of freemasons was formed at Rudolstadt on 18 March 1785 named “Günther zum stehenden Löwen” after the reigning Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Ludwig Günther and the lion of Schwarzburg.
Prince Ludwig Günther (1708-1790) was a member of this lodge as was his grandson, Prince Ludwig Friedrich II (1767-1807). Other prominent members of this lodge included Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller and Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
During the first 50 years after 1737, when a lodge was formed at Hamburg, around 400 lodges were founded with the support of Friedrich the Great, who was attracted by the tolerant spirit of the freemasonry.
“Ode auf den zu Hubertusburggeschlossenen Frieden” and “Der Mensch” by Carl Gerd von Ketelhodt zum Unterricht were printed in 1763 at Rudolstadt.
During the visit of the young Duke Carl August of Weimar in December 1775, freemasons of Rudolstadt and Weimar met at the “Zur Güldenen Gabel” inn.
Under Carl August, Weimar became a literary centre in Europe. During the Napoleonic Wars the marriage of his son to the daughter of the Russian Tsar, Maria Pawlowna, guaranteed his political survival and at the Congress of Vienna earned him the title of a Grand Duke.
In 1857, Hofdruckereibesitzer G. Froebel gathered together Freemasons in this region to restore this lodge, which had not met since 1829. According to the constitution of 14 September 1859, the name “Günther zur Eintracht“, or “Günther concord” was chosen to honour Friedrich Günther (1793 – 1867), the reigning prince in Rudolstadt.
Starting in the late 18th century, an educated class developed, which defined itself more on the basis of education than material possessions.
Members of this class were often employed as civil servants, at universities, or in the free professions. Mindful of how important their education was for their own careers, parents placed tremendous emphasis on educating their children, particularly their sons. In certain cases, daughters were also given advanced educations.
The term Bildungsbürgertum was coined in the 1920s for this class for whom the concept of education as a lifelong process of human development; rather than mere training in gaining certain external knowledge or skills. For this class, education is seen as a process of continual expansion and growth of an individual’s spiritual and cultural sensibilities as well as life, personal and social skills.
The word “Bildung” is deeply rooted in the idea of the Enlightenment and has broader meaning than “culture” or “education”.
Humboldt envisaged an ideal of Bildung, education in a broad sense, which aimed not merely to provide professional skills through schooling along a fixed path but rather to allow students to build individual character by choosing their own way.
Humboldt’s model was based on two ideas of the Enlightenment: the individual and the world citizen. Humboldt believed that the university and education in general, should enable students to become autonomous individuals and world citizens by developing their own reasoning powers in an environment of academic freedom.
The University of Berlin was founded on 15 October 1810 to develop this ideal. Friedrich Froebel attended in 1812 to study mineralogy under Weiss and jurisprudence under Savigny. With other Berlin students, Froebel joined the famous volunteer corps of “Black Riflemen”, in the Prussian army against Napoleon. After the close of the war, Froebel claimed the fulfilment of the promise made to him of an appointment in the mineralogical museum at Berlin, and resumed his studies.
Karl Froebel was one of the five nephews of Friedrich Froebel, who were educated at the school founded in 1816 at Griesham.
Helene was the daughter of Karl and Johanna Froebel. In 1881 she was an assistant teacher living with her parents at 19 and 20 Moray Place, Edinburgh. Helene (now Helen) Froebel (spinster) was living at 167 and 169 Queens Road, Paddington London as a teacher of Music and German in 1911.
Private garden of 3½ acres in Georgian New Town, Edinburgh. Shrubs, trees and beds offer an atmosphere of tranquillity for residents, subject to payment of an annual subscription.
Scotland’s Gardens is a registered charity. Created in 1931, we raise funds for other worthy charities by facilitating the opening of large and small gardens of horticultural interest throughout Scotland to the public.
Moray Place is perhaps Edinburgh’s most sought after New Town address and a fine example of Georgian architecture. Situated within easy walking distance of the city centre, Moray Place is a beautiful, quiet, circular terrace arranged around tranquil private central gardens. There are further terraced gardens on the banks of the Water of Leith. Residents can apply for access to both of these.
The Earl of Moray, had plans drawn up in 1822 to develop his estates, Northwest of the New Town sloping down to the Water of Leith. The terrace houses around Moray Place were built between 1822 and 1830 to the design of James Gillespie Graham.
The original character of the Georgian era New Town, with its cobbled roads, pillars, and sandstone block facades is preserved today by building codes that stipulate even the wrought iron railings must be painted a specific colour – black. New Town residences were built along an integrated and harmonious plan, with residences set near pleasant communal gardens and attractive views. Edinburgh’s New Town is a marvel of urban planning, combining elegant architecture with spacious and comfortable housing.
Karl Froebel was in Manchester for a while before moving to Edinburgh to open a school with his wife Johanna Kustner Froebel. Clementine (wife of Sir Winston Churchill and a life peeress in her own right) was educated first at home, then briefly at the Edinburgh school run by Karl Froebel. (Soames, M. (2002). Clementine Churchill: The Biography of a Marriage London, Doubleday)
Many Western cultures see these feelings as reflecting indecision.
Mixed emotions are a sign of emotional complexity, not necessarily a sign of indecision.
People who show mixed feelings are better able to differentiate their emotions and experience their lives in an emotionally rich and balanced way.
In cultures where there is more emphasis on family bonds and duty, people are more likely to experience emotional complexity because they are able to see different perspectives. A job loss may be disappointing, but also an exciting opportunity to spend more time with family or to try something new.
People experiencing higher emotional complexity are also better able to control their emotions and have a lower incidence of depression.
The Romanesque stone arch bridge and paved ford south of this village were part of the ancient trade route along the Ilm valley.
Großhettstedt was the center of a ducal and later royal estate named after Hedan, the ruling Frankish Duke of Thuringia. The evangelization of Thuringia by Boniface began during the reign of Heden, who ruled from Würzburg and built a Palatinate Church at Fulda. On his death in 719, the duchy reverted to the Merovingian kings.
This estate included Kleinhettstedt and Barchfeld, first recorded during the 9th century by the Imperial Abbey of Fulda. Barchfeld means pig pasture from barg, a castrated boar. Domesticated male pigs, called boars, were castrated to reduce aggression and improve meat quality.
A crouching crane was the old seal of Barchfeld, which before 1919 was part of the Duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen.
Hedan (oder Heden) II. (auch Hetan, Haetan oder Ętan urkundlich benannt; † zwischen 717 bis 719) war am Anfang des 8. Jahrhunderts Herzog des erneuerten thüringischen Stammesherzogtums bis zu seinem Tod um 719. Er war ein Sohn von Herzog Gosbert, unter dem der Heilige Kilian starb.
Hedan war Franke und hatte seinen Sitz in Würzburg. Er herrschte frühestens ab 689, offenbar anfangs nur im Mainfränkischen, verdrängte er später die Dynastie Radulfs, um das Würzburger Herzogtum mit dem altthüringischen zu vereinigen. Um 700 erbaute er eine Herzogspfalz mit Kirche in Fulda.
Von Bedeutung ist Hedan vor allem, da unter seiner Herrschaft die Missionierung der Thüringer durch Bonifatius begann, der auch 742 das Bistum Erfurt gründete.
The last Prior of the Abbey at Stadtilm, Volckmar Frobenius became the first Lutheran pastor at Großhettstedt. He married Christin, a god daughter of Martin Luther. Two of their sons became Lutheran pastors and adopted Froebel as the written form of the family name.